Jacaranda Nature of Biology 2 VCE Units 3 and 4 6E LearnON & Print & StudyOn Image

Jacaranda Nature of Biology 2 VCE Units 3 and 4 6E LearnON & Print & StudyOn

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ISBN: 9780730371267
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Jacaranda Nature of Biology

Victoria’s most trusted VCE Biology online and print resource

The Jacaranda Nature of Biology series has been rewritten for the VCE Biology Study Design (2022-2026) and offers a complete and balanced learning experience that prepares students for success in their assessments by building deep understanding in both Key Knowledge and Key Science Skills.

Prepare students for all forms of assessment
Preparing students for both the SACs and exam, with access to 1000s of past VCAA exam questions (now in print and learnON), new teacher-only and practice SACs for every Area of Study and much more.

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Students can hear another voice and perspective, with 100s of new videos where expert VCE Biology teachers unpack concepts, VCAA exam questions and sample problems.

For students of all ability levels
All students can understand deeply and succeed in VCE, with content mapped to Key Knowledge and Key Science Skills, careful scaffolding and contemporary case studies that provide a real-word context.

eLogbook and eWorkBook
Free resources to support learning (eWorkbook) and the increased requirement for practical investigations (eLogbook), which includes over 80 practical investigations with teacher advice and risk assessments.

For teachers, learnON includes additional teacher resources such as quarantined questions and answers, curriculum grids and work programs.

About this resource vi

Accessing online resources ix

Acknowledgements xi

Unit 3 How Do Cells Maintain Life? 1

Area of Study 1 What is the Role of Nucleic Acids and Proteins In Maintaining Life?

1 The relationship between nucleic acids and proteins 3

1.1 Overview 4

1.2 BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Reviewing cells 5

1.3 Nucleic acids as information molecules 18

1.4 The genetic code and protein synthesis 28

1.5 The structure of genes 40

1.6 Gene regulation 45

1.7 Amino acids and polypeptides 52

1.8 The proteome 61

1.9 Organelles involved in the protein secretory pathway 65

1.10 Review 72

2 DNA manipulation techniques and applications 85

2.1 Overview 86

2.2 The use of enzymes to manipulate DNA 87

2.3 CRISPR-Cas9 97

2.4 Amplification of DNA using polymerase chain reaction 103

2.5 The use of gel electrophoresis 108

2.6 Recombinant plasmids 124

2.7 The use of genetically modified and transgenic organisms 138

2.8 Review 148

Area of Study 1 Review

Practice examination 159

Practice school-assessed coursework 166

Area of Study 2 How Are Biochemical Pathways Regulated?

3 Regulation of biochemical pathways 169

3.1 Overview 170

3.2 Biochemical pathways 171

3.3 The role of enzymes in biochemical pathways 177

3.4 The role of coenzymes in biochemical pathways 189

3.5 Factors that impact enzyme function 197

3.6 Review 213

4 Photosynthesis, cellular respiration and biotechnological applications 225

4.1 Overview 226

4.2 Photosynthesis 227

4.3 Adaptations in C3, C4 and CAM plants 242

4.4 Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis 255

4.5 Cellular respiration 264

4.6 Anaerobic fermentation 280

4.7 Factors that affect the rate of cellular respiration 288

4.8 Improving photosynthetic efficiencies and crop yields using CRISPR-Cas9 295

4.9 Uses and applications of the anaerobic fermentation of biomass 302

4.10 Review 309

Area of Study 2 Review

Practice examination 321

Practice school-assessed coursework 327

Unit 4 How Does Life Change and Respond to Challenges? 333

Area of Study 1 How Do Organisms Respond to Pathogens?

5 Responding to antigens and acquiring immunity 335

5.1 Overview 336

5.2 Antigens, pathogens and allergens 337

5.3 Subdivisions of immunity 359

5.4 Physical, chemical and microbiota barriers 365

5.5 The components of innate immunity 373

5.6 The inflammatory response in innate immunity 389

5.7 The role of the lymphatic system 395

5.8 Initiation of an adaptive immune response 401

5.9 The adaptive immune response 408

5.10 Humoral adaptive immunity and B lymphocytes 413

5.11 Cell-mediated adaptive immunity and cytotoxic T cells 422

5.12 Natural and artificial immunity 428

5.13 Review 436

6 Disease challenges and strategies 447

6.1 Overview 448

6.2 The emergence and re-emergence of pathogens 449

6.3 Identifying and controlling the spread of pathogens 459

6.4 Vaccination programs and herd immunity 484

6.5 Development of immunotherapy strategies 494

6.6 Review 505

Area of Study 1 Review

Practice examination 517

Practice school-assessed coursework 522

Area of Study 2 How are Species Related Over Time?

7 Genetic changes in a population over time 525

7.1 Overview 526

7.2 Gene pools and allele frequencies 527

7.3 Environmental selection pressures, genetic drift and gene flow 532

7.4 Mutations as the source of new alleles 547

7.5 Biological consequences of changing allele frequencies 562

7.6 Selective breeding programs 569

7.7 The consequences of rapid genetic change in pathogens 575

7.8 Review 587

8 Changes in species over time 599

8.1 Overview 600

8.2 Changes in species over geological time 601

8.3 Evidence from fossils 618

8.4 Speciation 638

8.5 Review 653

9 Determining the relatedness over time 665

9.1 Overview 666

9.2 Structural morphology 667

9.3 Molecular homology 677

9.4 Phylogenetic trees 688

9.5 Review 698

10 Human change over time 711

10.1 Overview 712

10.2 Shared characteristics of mammals, primates, hominoids and hominins 713

10.3 Major trends in hominin evolution 732

10.4 Interpretation of the human fossil record 752

10.5 Evidence of the migration of modern human populations 768

10.6 Review 782

Area of Study 2 Review

Practice examination 793

Practice school-assessed coursework 801

Area of Study 3 How Is Scientific Inquiry Used To Investigate Cellular Processes and/or Biological Change?

11 Scientific investigations

11.1 Overview

11.2 Key science skills and concepts in biology

11.3 Characteristics of scientific methodology and primary data generation

11.4 Health, safety and ethical guidelines

11.5 Accuracy, precision, reproducibility, repeatability and validity of measurements

11.6 Ways of organising, analysing and evaluating primary data

11.7 The nature of evidence and key findings of investigations

11.8 Assumptions and limitations in investigations

11.9 Conventions of science communication

11.10 Conventions of scientific poster presentation

11.11 Review

Area of Study 3 Exam

Practice examination 809

Appendix: Amino acid data 815

Glossary 817

Index 833