Jacaranda Humanities Alive 8 Victorian Curriculum 2E LearnON and Print Image

Jacaranda Humanities Alive 8 Victorian Curriculum 2E LearnON and Print

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Jacaranda Humanities Alive 8 Victorian Curriculum, 2nd Edition learnON & Print
This combined print and digital title provides 100% coverage of the Victorian Curriculum for Humanities. The textbook comes with a complimentary activation code for learnON, the powerful digital learning platform making learning personalised and visible for both students and teachers.

The latest editions of Jacaranda Humanities Alive Victorian Curriculum series include these key features:

  • Choice – four titles in one, or single-subject titles
  • teachON – video lessons by Victoria’s best teachers, teaching advice and lesson plans
  • learnON – our most powerful digital learning platform
    • An immersive digital platform in which students and teachers are connected
    • Rich media to engage and inspire
    • Immediate, corrective feedback for students and an in-built testmaker for teachers to create assignments from a large pool of questions for immediate, spaced and mixed practice.
    • Results reported against skills and content allow unmatched visibility of students’ progress.
  • Thinking Big research projects – creative, imaginative, collaborative activities
  • SkillBuilders – Tell me, Show me, Let me do it!

For teachers, learnON includes additional teacher resources such as quarantined questions and answers, curriculum grids and work programs.

How to use the Jacaranda Humanities Alive resource suite xii

Acknowledgements xv

History 1

1 Historical skills and concepts 3

1.1 Overview 3

1.2 Why we study history 4

1.3 Historical skills 6

1.4 Ages, time and chronology 11

1.5 Detective work and archaeology 14

1.6 Dating historical evidence 18

1.7 Perspectives and empathy 19

1.8 SkillBuilder: Sequencing events in chronological order Online only

1.9 Review Online only

2 From the ancient to the modern world 24

2.1 Overview 24

2.2 Examining the evidence 26

2.3 People on the move 29

2.4 Religions on the move 33

2.5 A different way of life 36

2.6 Rulers, religion and the changing map of medieval Europe 39

2.7 Migrations, invasions and empires in Asia 44

2.8 Population, cities and trade 48

2.9 Muslim traders and Africa 50

2.10 The emerging power of western Europe 53

2.11 Portuguese and Spanish voyages of discovery 56

2.12 Vasco da Gama opens the East 59

2.13 Consequences of the discoveries 62

2.14 SkillBuilder: Explaining different historical interpretations Online only

2.15 Thinking Big research project: Time travel brochure Online only

2.16 Review Online only

3 The Vikings (c. 790–1066) 69

3.1 Overview 69

3.2 Examining the evidence 71

3.3 Scandinavia before the Viking Age 73

3.4 The Viking homelands 75

3.5 Viking society 79

3.6 Early Viking religion 83

3.7 Viking longships 87

3.8 Viking weaponry 89

3.9 Viking invasions and settlements 92

3.10 Viking explorers, settlers and traders 94

3.11 The spread of Christianity 97

3.12 Harald Bluetooth: Viking king of Denmark 99

3.13 The Battle of Hastings and the end of the Viking Age 102

3.14 Heritage of the Vikings: governing Iceland in the Viking Age 105

3.15 SkillBuilder: Interpreting sources on the Vikings Online only

3.16 Thinking Big research project: Write a Viking saga Online only

3.17 Review Online only

4 Medieval Europe (c.590–1500) 110

4.1 Overview 110

4.2 Examining the evidence 112

4.3 The impact of the ‘barbarian’ invasions 114

4.4 Early medieval Christianity 117

4.5 The feudal system 121

4.6 Life on the manor for men, women and children 123

4.7 The knight 126

4.8 Medieval warfare 129

4.9 Castles 131

4.10 The power of the medieval Church 134

4.11 Monasteries and convents 136

4.12 The Crusades 139

4.13 The Age of Faith 142

4.14 Towns and trades 146

4.15 Living conditions and medical science in the fourteenth century 148

4.16 The Black Death 153

4.17 How did the Black Death change society? 157

4.18 The Peasants’ Revolt 160

4.19 Joan of Arc 163

4.20 The heritage of medieval Europe 167

4.21 SkillBuilder: Interpreting medieval art as sources Online only

4.22 Thinking Big research project: Festival of Lost Trades Online only

4.23 Review Online only

5 The Ottoman Empire (c. 1299–1683) 173

5.1 Overview 173

5.2 Examining the evidence 175

5.3 Origins of the Empire 177

5.4 The golden age of Islam 182

5.5 The beginnings of the Ottoman Empire 185

5.6 The Black Death and the Ottoman Empire 188

5.7 The fall of Constantinople 193

5.8 Suleiman the Magnificent 199

5.9 Life in the Ottoman Empire 203

5.10 Ottoman art, architecture and literature 208

5.11 SkillBuilder: Evaluating Ottoman Empire sources Online only

5.12 Thinking Big research project: Ottoman Empire documentary Online only

5.13 Review Online only

6 Angkor and the Khmer Empire (c. 802–1431) 214

6.1 Overview 214

6.2 Examining the evidence 216

6.3 Environment and peoples 218

6.4 The historical setting 221

6.5 The rise of Angkor and the Khmer Empire 224

6.6 Religious beliefs and values 228

6.7 Khmer society 232

6.8 Angkor’s buildings 236

6.9 Decline and fall: the historical debate 239

6.10 Legacies of the Khmer Empire 242

6.11 SkillBuilder: Making your own notes to analyse relevant sources Online only

6.12 Thinking Big research project: Khmer Empire costume and set design Online only

6.13 Review Online only

7 Mongol expansion (c. 1206–1368) 250

7.1 Overview 250

7.2 Examining the evidence 252

7.3 Life in imperial China before the Mongol conquest 254

7.4 The Mongol people and their land 259

7.5 The rise of Temujin 263

7.6 The Mongol army 266

7.7 Mongol rule — the Yuan dynasty 271

7.8 Culture and beliefs at the khan’s court 274

7.9 The travels of Marco Polo 279

7.10 Defeat of the Mongol Empire 282

7.11 The Mongol legacy 285

7.12 SkillBuilder: Analysing different perspectives Online only

7.13 Thinking Big research project: The Mongol expansion show Online only

7.14 Review Online only

8 Japan under the shoguns (c. 794–1867) 290

8.1 Overview 290

8.2 Examining the evidence 292

8.3 Ancient and Classical Japan 296

8.4 The rise of the shoguns 300

8.5 Challenges to shogunate rule 303

8.6 The Tokugawa shogunate 307

8.7 Japanese feudal society 311

8.8 The samurai 315

8.9 The role of women 319

8.10 Arts and culture 323

8.11 Land use under the Tokugawa shoguns 327

8.12 Foreign devils 331

8.13 Emperor Meiji and modern Japan 336

8.14 SkillBuilder: Analysing cause and effect Online only

8.15 Thinking Big research project: Shinto and Buddhism guidebook Online only

8.16 Review Online only

9 Polynesian expansion across the Pacific (c 700–1756) 343

9.1 Overview 343

9.2 Examining the evidence 345

9.3 The Polynesian triangle 347

9.4 Rapa Nui 350

9.5 Discovery of the land of the long white cloud 353

9.6 Maori society — an overview 357

9.7 People and the environment 361

9.8 Living in a Maori village 366

9.9 Customs and culture 367

9.10 SkillBuilder: Making your own notes from sources Online only

9.11 Thinking Big research project: Polynesian travel show Online only

9.12 Review Online only

10 Renaissance Italy (c. 1400–1600) 374

10.1 Overview 374

10.2 Examining the evidence 376

10.3 The origins of the Renaissance 378

10.4 Florence: the cradle of the Renaissance 380

10.5 Venice: the serene republic 385

10.6 Renaissance society 388

10.7 Artistic stars of the Renaissance 392

10.8 The spread of the Renaissance 396

10.9 A scientific revolution 398

10.10 The Reformation and Counter-Reformation 402

10.11 Legacies of the Renaissance 405

10.12 SkillBuilder: Evaluating historical significance Online only

10.13 Thinking Big research project: Renaissance online magazine Online only

10.14 Review Online only

11 The Spanish conquest of the Americas (c. 1492–1572) 411

11.1 Overview 411

11.2 Examining the evidence 413

11.3 The Aztecs before Spanish arrival 415

11.4 Columbus and the New World 420

11.5 Cortes, the conquistadors and the Aztecs 424

11.6 New Spain 429

11.7 Slavery in the New World 432

11.8 The impact and legacy of colonisation 437

11.9 SkillBuilder: Evaluating roles and achievements Online only

11.10 Thinking Big research project: Spanish conquest exhibition Online only

11.11 Review Online only

Geography 445

12 Geographical skills and concepts 447

12.1 Overview 447

12.2 Work and careers in Geography 448

12.3 Concepts and skills used in Geography 449

12.4 Review Online only

Unit 1 Landforms and Landscapes 459

13 Introducing landforms and landscapes 460

13.1 Overview 460

13.2 Different types of landscapes 461

13.3 SkillBuilder: Recognising land features Online only

13.4 The processes that shape landscapes 464

13.5 Underground landscapes 470

13.6 Australian landforms 473

13.7 Landforms of the Pacific 479

13.8 SkillBuilder: Using positional language Online only

13.9 Cultural significance of landscapes 483

13.10 Preserving and managing landscapes 488

13.11 Thinking Big research project: Karst landscape virtual tour Online only

13.12 Review Online only

14 Landscapes formed by water 493

14.1 Overview 493

14.2 Landscapes formed by water 494

14.3 Coastal erosion 496

14.4 Which coastal landforms are created by deposition? 499

14.5 Managing coasts 502

14.6 Indigenous use of coastal environments 505

14.7 Comparing coastal landforms 506

14.8 How do I undertake coastal fieldwork? 508

14.9 SkillBuilder: Constructing a field sketch Online only

14.10 How does water form river landscapes? 511

14.11 Managing river landscapes 515

14.12 Landscapes formed by ice 518

14.13 SkillBuilder: Reading contour lines on a map Online only

14.14 Thinking Big research project: Coastal erosion animation Online only

14.15 Review Online only

15 Desert landscapes 524

15.1 Overview 524

15.2 What is a desert? 525

15.3 SkillBuilder: Using latitude and longitude Online only

15.4 How the climate forms deserts 528

15.5 The processes that shape desert landforms 533

15.6 Characteristics of Australia’s deserts 537

15.7 SkillBuilder: Calculating distance using scale Online only

15.8 How did Lake Mungo become dry? 540

15.9 How people use deserts 543

15.10 Antarctica — a cold desert 545

15.11 Thinking Big research project: Desert travel brochure Online only

15.12 Review Online only

16 Mountain landscapes 553

16.1 Overview 553

16.2 How mountains are formed 554

16.3 The world’s mountains and ranges 562

16.4 SkillBuilder: Drawing simple cross-sections Online only

16.5 How people use mountains 566

16.6 Earthquakes and tsunamis 569

16.7 Volcanic mountains 582

16.8 SkillBuilder: Interpreting an aerial photo Online only

16.9 How do volcanic eruptions affect people? 589

16.10 Thinking Big research project: Earthquakes feature article Online only

16.11 Review Online only

17 Rainforest landscapes 596

17.1 Overview 596

17.2 Rainforest characteristics 597

17.3 SkillBuilder: Creating and describing complex overlay maps Online only

17.4 Changing rainforest environments 602

17.5 SkillBuilder: Drawing a précis map Online only

17.6 Indigenous peoples and the rainforest 609

17.7 Disappearing rainforests 613

17.8 Social and environmental impacts of deforestation 615

17.9 Saving and preserving rainforests 620

17.10 Thinking Big research project: Rainforest display Online only

17.11 Review Online only

Fieldwork inquiry: Local water catchment study Online only

Unit 2 Changing Nations 626

18 Urbanisation and people on the move 627

18.1 Overview 627

18.2 Urbanisation around the world 628

18.3 Australian urbanisation 630

18.4 SkillBuilder: Understanding thematic maps Online only

18.5 Comparing urbanisation in the United States and Australia 640

18.6 Effects of international migration on Australia 644

18.7 SkillBuilder: Creating and reading pictographs Online only

18.8 People on the move in Australia and China 652

18.9 SkillBuilder: Comparing population profiles Online only

18.10 Thinking Big research project: Multicultural Australia photo essay Online only

18.11 Review Online only

19 Our changing urban world 660

19.1 Overview 660

19.2 Urban areas and their effects on people 661

19.3 SkillBuilder: Describing photographs Online only

19.4 Cities and megacities of the world 670

19.5 Causes and effects of Indonesia’s urban growth 676

19.6 SkillBuilder: Creating and reading compound bar graphs Online only

19.7 Characteristics of cities around the world 681

19.8 Creating sustainable cities 691

19.9 Sustainable cities in Australia 695

19.10 SkillBuilder: Constructing a basic sketch map Online only

19.11 Thinking Big research project: One day in Jakarta, one day in New York City Online only

19.12 Review Online only

20 Managing and planning Australia’s urban future 703

20.1 Overview 703

20.2 Characteristics of sustainable cities 704

20.3 Sustainability of growing urban communities 706

20.4 SkillBuilder: Reading and describing basic choropleth maps Online only

20.5 Managing our suburbs 710

20.6 Managing traffic 713

20.7 SkillBuilder: Drawing a line graph using Excel Online only

20.8 Sustainable cities 719

20.9 Planning for a sustainable and liveable future 724

20.10 Thinking Big research project: Electric vehicle report Online only

20.11 Review Online only

Geographical inquiry: Investigating an Asian megacity Online only

Civics and Citizenship 731

21 Rights, freedoms, democracy and the law 733

21.1 Overview 733

21.2 Protecting our rights and freedoms 734

21.3 Freedom of speech and other democratic freedoms 738

21.4 Dissent in a democracy and taking direct action 747

21.5 SkillBuilder: Questioning and research Online only

21.6 Taking part in the democratic process 753

21.7 The role of members of parliament 758

21.8 Lobby and pressure groups 761

21.9 SkillBuilder: Communication and reflection Online only

21.10 How parliaments make laws 767

21.11 How courts make laws 770

21.12 Criminal law and civil law 774

21.13 SkillBuilder: Group consensus Online only

21.14 Customary law in Indigenous communities 777

21.15 Thinking Big research project: A bill of rights for Australia? Online only

21.16 Review Online only

22 Influences on Australian society and national identity 784

22.1 Overview 784

22.2 Traditional and changing views of Australian identity 785

22.3 Indigenous influences on Australian national identity 788

22.4 Belonging to a new country — migrant experiences 792

22.5 SkillBuilder: Delivering an oral presentation Online only

22.6 Religion in Australia 794

22.7 The influence of religion on Australian society 799

22.8 SkillBuilder: Deconstruct/reconstruct method Online only

22.9 Thinking Big research project: My family’s identity Online only

22.10 Review Online only

Economics and Business 803

23 The market system, government, and consumer protection 805

23.1 Overview 805

23.2 Participants in the market system 806

23.3 Different types of markets 811

23.4 Key economic questions for business 817

23.5 Government involvement in the market 822

23.6 SkillBuilder: Contesting and debating ideas Online only

23.7 Legal protection of consumer rights 828

23.8 Business competition protects consumers 833

23.9 Keeping consumers safe 838

23.10 SkillBuilder: Questioning and research Online only

23.11 Thinking Big research project: Please stop calling Online only

23.12 Review Online only

24 Business decisions 845

24.1 Overview 845

24.2 The three main ways to own a business 846

24.3 Alternative ways to own a business 849

24.4 Opportunities for businesses 853

24.5 Responding to opportunities in the market 857

24.6 SkillBuilder: Cost-benefit analysis Online only

24.7 Thinking Big research project: Pitch a business idea Online only

24.8 Review Online only

25 The changing work environment 864

25.1 Overview 864

25.2 Influences on work today 865

25.3 The significance of technology 869

25.4 Changes to the workforce 872

25.5 Work in the future 880

25.6 SkillBuilder: Analysis and interpretation of data Online only

25.7 Thinking Big research project: Impacts of technology poster Online only

25.8 Review Online only

Glossary 889

Index 903