Psychology VCE Units 1 and 2 8E & eBookPLUS Image

Psychology VCE Units 1 and 2 8E & eBookPLUS

Author(s):
ISBN: 9780730345978
Pub date:
RRP: $80
ADD TO CART
Psychology VCE Units 1 & 2, 8th Edition Print & eBookPLUS 
This print and digital title is the trusted market-leader to reflect the Study Design changes, along with content and layout updates to make it even more accessible for every student – helping them achieve exam success. 

The latest edition of Psychology VCE Units 1 & 2 includes these key updates: 

  • Renowned author John Grivas, regarded for his authoritative and research-based approach, ensures quality content that helps students maximise their VCE success
  • 100% coverage of the Study Design, so teachers can be confident that their resource has only examinable, relevant content
  • Current, logical and sequenced coverage of research methods and key science skills guides students through this core component
  • A wide range of learning activities (review, data analysis, media response, reflection) enhance students’ application of key skills while encouraging in-depth understanding

Preface vii

Contents matrix: chapter coverage of the study design xi

About eBookPLUS xiv

Acknowledgements xv

Psychology — Introduction and Research Methods

Chapter 1 Introduction to psychology 3

Defining psychology and its subject matter 4

Scientific nature of psychology 6

Scientific vs non-scientific explanations 7

Classic and contemporary perspectives in psychology 11

Careers and areas of specialisation in psychology 11

Overview of VCE Psychology 15

Course outline 15

Assessment 15

Chapter summary 17

Chapter 2 Research methods in psychology 19

Steps in psychological research 20

Step 1: Identify the research topic 21

Step 2: Formulate the research hypothesis 22

Step 3: Design the research 22

Step 4: Collect the data 22

Step 5: Analyse the data 22

Step 6: Interpret and evaluate the results 22

Step 7: Report the research and findings 24

Research methods 25

Sample and population 25

Research hypothesis 26

Experimental research 28

Advantages and limitations of experimental research 52

Cross-sectional studies 56

Case studies 58

Observational studies 60

Self-reports 65

Types of data 70

Primary and secondary data 70

Qualitative and quantitative data 70

Organising, presenting and interpreting data 74

Descriptive statistics 74

Inferential statistics 84

Conclusions and generalisations 85

Reliability and validity in research 86

Ethics in psychological research and reporting 90

National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 91

Role of ethics committees 92

Australian Privacy Principles 92

Role of the experimenter 93

Use of animals in psychological research 96

Reporting conventions 99

Written report 100

Poster report 101

Chapter summary 106

Key terms 107

Learning checklist 108

Chapter test 110

Unit 1 How Are Behaviour and Mental Processes Shaped?

Chapter 3 Role of the brain in mental processes and behaviour 121

Complexity of the brain 122

Approaches over time to understanding the role of the brain 124

Brain versus heart debate 125

Mind–body problem 126

Phrenology 129

First brain experiments 132

Brain ablation experiments 132

Electrical stimulation of the brain 133

Neuroimaging techniques 138

Nervous system: structure and function 145

Organisation of the nervous system 146

Central nervous system 146

Peripheral nervous system 148

Role of the neuron 150

Structure of a neuron 151

Types of neurons 152

Glial cells 154

Astrocytes 154

Microglia 154

Oligodendroglia 154

Schwann cells 154

Structure and function of brain areas 155

Hindbrain 156

Midbrain 157

Forebrain 158

Roles of the cerebral cortex 162

Cerebral hemispheres 163

Hemispheric specialisation 163

Cortical lobes of the cerebral cortex 165

Chapter summary 174

Key terms 175

Learning checklist 176

Chapter test 178

Chapter 4 Brain plasticity and brain damage 185

Brain development in infancy and adolescence 186

Development of myelin 187

Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning 187

Frontal lobe development 188

Impact of injury to the cerebral cortex and adaptive plasticity 190

Impact of injury to the cerebral cortex 192

Brain plasticity 200

Parkinson’s disease 205

Symptoms 206

Diagnosis and treatment 207

Use of animal studies and neuroimaging techniques to develop understanding of Parkinson’s disease 208

Chapter summary 213

Key terms 214

Learning checklist 214

Chapter test 215

Chapter 5 The complexity of psychological development 219

Defining development 220

Areas of development 221

Interaction of different areas of development 222

How psychological development proceeds 224

Continuous versus discontinuous development 224

Sequential nature of development 225

Quantitative and qualitative changes 225

Individual differences in development 225

Interaction of hereditary and environmental factors in shaping psychological

development 228

Nature versus nurture 229

Role of maturation in development 232

Sensitive and critical periods in psychological development 237

Sensitive periods 237

Critical periods 238

Twin studies and adoption studies 240

Twin studies 240

Adoption studies 242

Attachment and emotional development 244

Ainsworth and the Strange Situation procedure 245

Harlow’s experiments on attachment in monkeys 253

Development of cognitive abilities 257

Key principles of Piaget’s theory 258

Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development 260

Sensorimotor stage (0–2 years) 261

Pre-operational stage (2–7 years) 262

Concrete operational stage (7–12 years) 266

Formal operational stage (12+ years) 267

Criticisms of Piaget’s theory 269

Psychosocial development 270

Stage 1: Trust versus Mistrust (0 to 12–18 months) 272

Stage 2: Autonomy versus Shame and doubt (12–18 months to 3 years) 273

Stage 3: Initiative versus Guilt (3–5 years) 274

Stage 4: Industry versus Inferiority (5–12 years) 275

Stage 5: Identity versus Role confusion (12–18 years) 276

Stage 6: Intimacy versus Isolation (18–25 years) 277

Stage 7: Generativity versus Stagnation (25–65 years) 278

Stage 8: Integrity versus Despair (65+ years) 279

Criticisms of Erikson’s theory 280

Chapter summary 282

Key terms 283

Learning checklist 284

Chapter test 286

Chapter 6 Atypical psychological development 291

Approaches to describing normality 292

Socio-cultural approach 292

Functional approach 293

Historical approach 293

Medical approach 293

Statistical approach 293

Situational approach 293

Conceptualisation of normality 294

Typical and atypical behaviours 294

Adaptive and maladaptive behaviours 294

Mental health and mental disorder 296

Mental health as a product of internal and external factors 300

Categories of mental disorders 304

Incidence of mental disorder in Australia 305

Labelling someone with a mental disorder 307

Rosenhan’s (1973) research on labelling 307

Addiction disorders 310

Types of addiction disorders 311

Contributing factors 314

Treatment 318

Anxiety disorders 320

Types of anxiety disorders 321

Contributing factors 322

Treatment 324

Mood disorders 325

Types of mood disorders 326

Contributing factors 328

Treatment 332

Personality disorders 335

Types of personality disorders 335

Contributing factors 337

Treatment 338

Psychotic disorders 340

Key symptoms 340

Types of psychotic disorders 342

Contributing factors 343

The ‘two-hit’ hypothesis as an explanation for the development of schizophrenia 347

Treatment 348

Chapter summary 353

Key terms 354

Learning checklist 354

Chapter test 357

Unit 2 How Do External Factors Influence Behaviour and Mental Processes?

Chapter 7 Sensation and perception 363

Distinction between sensation and perception 364

Reception, processing and interpretation of sensory information 365

Reception and receptive fields 365

Transduction 366

Transmission 366

Interpretation 366

Visual perception 368

From eye to brain 369

Visual perception principles 374

Taste perception 398

From mouth to brain 398

Five basic tastes 400

Influences on taste perception 401

Age 401

Genetics 402

Perceptual set — food packaging and appearance 403

Culture 405

Chapter summary 409

Key terms 410

Learning checklist 411

Chapter test 412

Chapter 8 Distortions of perception 417

Visual illusions 419

Müller-Lyer illusion 420

Ames room illusion 422

Judgment of flavours 425

Perceptual set 425

Colour intensity 427

Texture 428

Synaesthesia 430

Explanations of synaesthesia 432

Chapter summary 435

Key terms 436

Learning checklist 436

Chapter test 437

Chapter 9 Social cognition 441

Person perception — forming impressions of other people 443

Impressions from physical appearance 444

Impressions from non-verbal communication 444

Attribution — explaining behaviour 450

The fundamental attribution error 451

Actor–observer bias 451

Self-serving bias 452

Culture and attribution 452

Attitudes 454

Tri-component model of attitudes 455

Limitations of the tri-component model 458

Attitudes and behaviour 460

Strength of the attitude 460

Accessibility of the attitude 460

Social context of the attitude 461

Perceived control over the behaviour 461

Factors influencing attitude formation 462

Classical conditioning 462

Operant conditioning 463

Social learning 464

Repeated exposure 464

Stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination 466

Stereotypes 467

Prejudice 471

Discrimination 472

Distinguishing between prejudice and discrimination 474

Methods that may reduce prejudice 475

Chapter summary 483

Key terms 484

Learning checklist 484

Chapter test 486

Chapter 10 Social influences on behaviour 491

Social influence 492

What is a group? 493

Status and social power within groups 495

Types of social power 495

Influence of status and social power within groups 498

Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment 498

Obedience 504

Milgram’s experiments on obedience 505

Factors affecting obedience 507

Conformity 512

Asch’s experiments on conformity 513

Factors affecting conformity 515

Influences on helping behaviour 523

Situational factors 524

Social factors 528

Personal factors 529

Influences on reluctance to help 535

Diffusion of responsibility 536

Audience inhibition 538

Cost–benefit analysis 539

Bullying 541

What is bullying? 541

Types of bullying 542

Effects of bullying on individuals 545

Sex differences in bullying 546

Causes of bullying 547

Influences of media on behaviour 550

Patterns of media access and use 551

Positive and negative influences 555

Chapter summary 566

Key terms 567

Learning checklist 567

Chapter test 569

Answers 574

Glossary 575

References 587

Index 599