# Physics 2 VCE Units 3 and 4 eBookPLUS & Print + StudyOn VCE Physics Units 3 and 4 2E

 Author(s): O'keeffe ISBN: 9780730328841 Pub date: August 2016 RRP: \$94.95

Physics 2 VCE Units 3 and 4 with eBookPLUS and studyOn VCE Physics Units 3 and 4 provides comprehensive coverage of the new VCAA study design for 2017-2021.

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Jacaranda Physics 2 is the second title in its series. To view the rest of the titles in this series, click here.

Acknowledgements xii

UNIT 3 Area of study 1

Chapter 1 Forces in action 2

Describing motion 3

The language of motion 3

Acceleration 4

Graphical analysis of motion 5

Position–time graphs 5

Velocity–time graphs 6

Acceleration–time graphs 6

Algebraic analysis of motion 8

Newton’s laws of motion 10

Changing motion 10

Newton’s First Law of Motion 10

Newton’s Second Law of Motion 11

Newton’s Third Law of Motion 11

Feeling lighter — feeling heavier 12

Accelerating upwards 12

Accelerating downwards 12

Applying Newton’s Second Law of Motion 13

On the level 15

Inclined to move 16

Projectile motion 18

Falling down 18

Moving and falling 19

What goes up must come down 22

Shooting at an angle 25

Projectile motion calculations 27

The real world — including air resistance 27

Uniform circular motion 28

Getting nowhere fast 28

Instantaneous velocity 28

Changing velocities and accelerations 29

Calculating accelerations and forces 31

Examples of forces that produce centripetal acceleration 33

Friction 34

Inside circular motion 36

Non-uniform circular motion 38

Amusement park physics 39

Chapter review 41

Chapter 2 Collisions and other interactions 47

Impulse and momentum in a collision 48

Impulse from a graph 49

Momentum and impulse 50

Conservation of momentum 50

Modelling a collision 51

Work in energy transfers and transformations 54

Getting down to work 55

Gravitational potential energy 56

Strain potential energy and springs 58

Hooke’s Law springs to mind 59

Elastic and inelastic collisions 61

A tale of two collisions 62

What’s the difference? 62

Energy transformations in collisions 63

Chapter review 67

Chapter 3 Special relativity 72

What is relativity? 73

There is no rest 73

The principle of relativity 74

Examples of Galilean relativity 76

Frames of reference 78

Electromagnetism brings new challenges 80

The Michelson–Morley experiment 82

Einstein’s two postulates of special relativity 82

The speed of light is constant 85

Space–time diagrams 86

Time dilation 87

Time dilation and modern technology 90

Length contraction 90

A note on seeing relativistic effects 95

The journey of muons 95

The most famous equation: E = mc2 97

Kinetic energy in special relativity 101

Mass conversion in the Sun 101

Chapter review 104

Area of study 1

Chapter 4 Gravitation 107

Explaining the solar system 108

Evidence of elliptical orbits 108

Kepler’s Second Law 109

Kepler’s Third Law 109

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 110

Gravitational fields 114

Astronauts and satellites in orbit 122

Geostationary satellites 122

‘Floating’ in a spacecraft 124

Chapter review 126

Chapter 5 Electric fields 129

The long road to Coulomb’s Law 130

Electric fields 132

Drawing an electric field 132

Calculating the value of an electric field 133

Dipole fields 134

Graphing the electric field 135

Changes in potential energy and kinetic energy in an electric field 136

Uniform electric fields 136

Chapter review 142

Chapter 6 Magnetic fields 145

Magnetic fields 148

Magnetic effect of a current 149

The right-hand-grip rule 150

Differences between magnetic fields 152

Explaining magnetism 152

Comparing gravitational, electric and magnetic fields 153

Magnetic force on an electric current 154

Left-hand rule 155

Right-hand-slap rule 155

Magnetic propulsion 156

Meters 156

DC motors 156

Magnetic force on charges 158

Crossed electric and magnetic fields 161

Overview 161

Chapter review 162

Area of study 2

Chapter 7 Generating electricity 166

Making electricity 167

Generating voltage with a magnetic field 167

Generating a current 168

The source of a current’s electrical energy 169

Faraday’s discovery of electromagnetic induction 170

Magnetic flux 171

Induced EMF 173

Rotating a loop 175

Using Lenz’s Law 175

Using magnetic force on the charges in the wire 176

Peak, RMS and peak-to-peak voltages 177

Producing a greater EMF 178

Chapter review 180

Chapter 8 Transmission of power 183

Electric power 184

Transformers 185

How does a transformer work? 186

Power distribution and transmission line losses 189

Using Ohm’s Law wisely 193

Chapter review 195

UNIT 4 Area of study 1

Chapter 9 Mechanical waves 198

Light and its properties 199

Sources of light 199

Speed of light 200

Ray model 202

Plane mirror reflection 202

Regular and diffuse reflection 203

What is colour? 204

Waves — energy transfer without matter transfer 204

Properties of waves 205

Interference of waves 207

Superposition 207

Reflection of waves 208

Standing waves 209

Interference of waves in two dimensions 211

Interference with sound 213

Colour effects of interference 215

Diffraction 216

Diffraction of water waves 216

Directional spread of different frequencies 217

The Doppler effect 218

Resonance 221

Chapter review 222

Chapter 10 Light as a wave 226

Bending of light 227

Snell’s Law 227

Limitations of the ray model 229

Speed of light in glass 232

Total internal reflection and

critical angle 233

Mirages 234

Optical fibres 236

Dispersion: producing colour from white light 237

Rainbows 239

Young’s experiment 239

Interpreting Young’s experiment 241

Spacing of bands in an interference

pattern 243

Other interference experiments 245

Newton’s rings 245

Fresnel’s biprism 245

Lloyd’s mirror 246

Diffraction of light 246

Diffraction and optical instruments 248

Light as an electromagnetic wave 249

Polarisation 252

Chapter review 255

Area of study 2

Chapter 11 The photoelectric effect 260

Physics before the observation of the photoelectric effect 261

Some preliminaries — measuring the energy of light and the energy of electrons 265

Measuring the energy of photoelectrons 267

The photoelectric effect 269

The experiment 270

The particle model view of a light bulb 273

A wave model view of a light bulb 274

The particle model and the photoelectric effect 275

An energy perspective 276

Explaining Lenard’s experimental observations 277

What’s wrong with the wave model? 281

Great photoelectric effect results 282

A photon model for the photoelectric effect 285

Chapter review 286

Chapter 12 Matter — particles and waves 289

The particle model of matter unhinged 290

The discovery of electrons 291

Emission spectra — atoms emit photons 293

Absorption spectra — atoms absorb photons 298

Comparing emission and absorption spectra 298

Making light 303

Accelerating charged particles 303

Incandescent light sources 304

Fluorescent light sources 304

Light-emitting diodes 306

The wave behaviour of electrons 308

Matter waves show themselves 310

Electrons through foils 312

Electrons, atoms and standing waves 315

Louis de Broglie’s picture 315

Waves or particles? 316

Photons have wave properties too 316

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 318

Why classical laws of physics are unable to model motion at very small scales 322

Chapter review 323

Area of study 3

Chapter 13 Practical investigations 327

What is the benefit to you? 328

What is involved? 328

How does this investigation differ from the Unit 2 investigation? 328

Selecting a topic 329

Turning the topic into a good question 330

Submitting a research proposal 330

Keep a log 330

Variables 332

Making the most of a measurement 335

Repeated measurements 336

Finding patterns 338

Drawing a line of best fit 338

Using Microsoft Excel 339

Other aspects of scientific measurement 339

Handling difficulties 340

Safety 340

Presenting your work for assessment 340

Presenting your work as a digital poster 341

Advice on assembling a poster 341

Topics 342

Brainstorming variables 344

Chapter review 345

Appendix 1: Skill checks 347

Appendix 2: Periodic table of the elements 360

Appendix 3: Some useful astronomical data 362

Appendix 4: Useful formulae 363

Glossary 366