Jacaranda Outcomes 2 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education HSC 6E eBookPLUS & Print + StudyOn HSC Pdhpe 2E (Book Code) Image

Jacaranda Outcomes 2 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education HSC 6E eBookPLUS & Print + StudyOn HSC Pdhpe 2E (Book Code)

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ISBN: 9780730365525
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Jacaranda Outcomes 2 PDHPE HSC Course 6e Print & eBookPLUS + studyON

This print and digital title provides rigorous adherence to the PDHPE Stage 6 Syllabus. Written by an experienced author team led by Ron Ruskin, the latest edition includes information on current trends and health promotion campaigns, alongside up-to-date data and statistics. A new refreshed design makes the content easy to follow and engaging, with updated figures and artwork.

 

The new edition of Jacaranda Outcomes 2 PDHPE HSC Course includes these key updates:
• Updated information on the state of health in Australia, including trends in cause of death and morbidity

• Explores information from the latest research, including Young Minds Matter Survey and Australia’s Health 2016

• The AIHW data has been updated to reflect the latest trends

• Brand-new and relevant case studies on topics such as the importance of disease prevention, fat shaming, sports science trends and health promotion campaigns

 

An access code for the eBookPLUS comes free on the inside cover of your printed text, so you can make the most of both the print and digital formats.

 

Jacaranda’s unique exam preparation tool studyON is now included free, maximising every student’s opportunity for exam success.


How to use this book x

About eBookPLUS and studyON xi

Acknowledgements xii

HSC Core 1 Health Priorities in Australia 1

1 How are priority issues for Australia’s health identified? 3

1.1 Measuring health status 5

1.1.1 Role of epidemiology 5

1.1.2 Measures of epidemiology 7

1.2 Identifying priority health issues 15

1.2.1 Social justice principles 16

1.2.2 Priority population groups 17

1.2.3 Prevalence of condition 17

1.2.4 Potential for prevention and early intervention 18

1.2.5 Costs to the individual and community 19

1.3 Topic review 21

1.3.1 Summary 21

1.3.2 Questions 21

1.3.3 Key terms 22

2 What are the priority issues for improving Australia’s health? 23

2.1 Groups experiencing health inequities 24

2.1.1 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 25

2.1.2 Socioeconomically disadvantaged people 29

2.1.3 People in rural and remote areas 30

2.1.4 Overseas-born people 32

2.1.5 The elderly 33

2.1.6 People with disabilities 35

2.2 High levels of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems 37

2.2.1 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) 38

2.2.2 Cancer 44

2.2.3 Injury 54

2.2.4 Mental health problems and illnesses 59

2.2.5 Diabetes 67

2.2.6 Respiratory disease 71

2.3 A growing and ageing population 76

2.3.1 Healthy ageing 77

2.3.2 Increased population living with chronic disease and disability 78

2.3.3 Demand for health services and workforce shortages 80

2.3.4 Availability of carers and volunteers 80

2.4 Topic review 81

2.4.1 Summary 81

2.4.2 Questions 82

2.4.3 Key terms 83

3 Role of health-care facilities and services in achieving better health 85

3.1 Health care in Australia 86

3.1.1 Range and types of health-care facilities and services 87

3.1.2 Responsibility for health-care facilities and services 92

3.1.3 Equity of access to health facilities and services 94

3.1.4 Health-care expenditure versus early intervention and prevention expenditure 97

3.1.5 Impact of emerging new treatments and technologies on health care 101

3.1.6 Health insurance: Medicare and private 104

3.2 Complementary and alternative health-care approaches 108

3.2.1 Reasons for the growth of complementary and alternative health products and services 109

3.2.2 Range of products and services available 110

3.2.3 How to make informed consumer choices 112

3.3 Topic review 113

3.3.1 Summary 113

3.3.2 Questions 114

3.3.3 Key terms 115

4 Actions required to address Australia’s health priorities 117

4.1 Levels of responsibility for health promotion 118

4.2 Benefits of partnerships in health promotion 122

4.3 How health promotion based on the Ottawa Charter promotes social justice 125

4.3.1 Developing personal skills 126

4.3.2 Creating supportive environments 127

4.3.3 Strengthening community action 128

4.3.4 Reorienting health services 129

4.3.5 Building healthy public policy 130

4.4 The Ottawa Charter in action 130

4.4.1 National Tobacco Strategy 2012–18 131

4.4.2 Head to Health Initiative 2017 136

4.5 Topic review 142

4.5.1 Summary 142

4.5.2 Questions 142

4.5.3 Key terms 142

HSC Core 2 Factors Affecting Performance 143

5 How does training affect performance? 145

5.1 Energy systems 146

5.1.1 Alactacid system (ATP/PC) 148

5.1.2 Lactic acid system 152

5.1.3 Aerobic system 155

5.2 Types of training and training methods 159

5.2.1 Aerobic training 160

5.2.2 Anaerobic training 163

5.2.3 Flexibility training 165

5.2.4 Strength training 169

5.3 Principles of training 174

5.3.1 Progressive overload 174

5.3.2 Specificity 176

5.3.3 Reversibility 178

5.3.4 Variety 178

5.3.5 Training thresholds 178

5.3.6 Warm-up and cool-down 181

5.4 Physiological adaptations in response to training 182

5.4.1 Resting heart rate 182

5.4.2 Stroke volume 183

5.4.3 Cardiac output 184

5.4.4 Oxygen uptake 184

5.4.5 Lung capacity 186

5.4.6 Haemoglobin level 186

5.4.7 Muscle hypertrophy 187

5.4.8 Effect on fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres 188

5.5 Topic review 190

5.5.1 Summary 190

5.5.2 Questions 191

5.5.3 Key terms 193

6 Psychology and performance 195

6.1 Psychology and sports performance 196

6.2 Motivation 196

6.2.1 Positive motivation 197

6.2.2 Negative motivation 198

6.2.3 Intrinsic motivation 198

6.2.4 Extrinsic motivation 199

6.3 Anxiety and arousal 201

6.3.1 Trait anxiety 201

6.3.2 State anxiety 202

6.3.3 Sources of stress 202

6.3.4 Optimum arousal 203

6.4 Psychological strategies to enhance motivation and manage anxiety 207

6.4.1 Concentration/attention skills (focusing) 207

6.4.2 Mental rehearsal/visualisation/imagery 209

6.4.3 Relaxation techniques 210

6.4.4 Goal setting 212

6.5 Topic review 214

6.5.1 Summary 214

6.5.2 Questions 215

6.5.3 Key terms 216

7 Nutrition, recovery strategies and performance 217

7.1 Nutritional considerations 218

7.1.1 Pre-performance 218

7.1.2 During performance 224

7.1.3 Post-performance 227

7.2 Supplementation 229

7.2.1 Vitamins 229

7.2.2 Minerals 229

7.2.3 Protein 231

7.2.4 Caffeine 232

7.2.5 Creatine products 232

7.3 Recovery strategies 233

7.3.1 Physiological strategies 234

7.3.2 Neural strategies 237

7.3.3 Tissue damage strategies 238

7.3.4 Psychological strategies 239

7.4 Topic review 242

7.4.1 Summary 242

7.4.2 Questions 243

7.4.3 Key terms 243

8 Skill and performance 245

8.1 Stages of skill acquisition 246

8.1.1 Cognitive stage 246

8.1.2 Associative stage 247

8.1.3 Autonomous stage 248

8.2 Characteristics of the learner 249

8.2.1 Personality 249

8.2.2 Heredity 250

8.2.3 Confidence 252

8.2.4 Prior experience 253

8.2.5 Ability 253

8.3 The learning environment 255

8.3.1 The nature of skill 255

8.3.2 Performance elements 259

8.3.3 Practice methods 263

8.3.4 Feedback 265

8.4 Assessment of skill and performance 269

8.4.1 Characteristics of skilled performers 269

8.4.2 Objective and subjective performance measures 272

8.4.3 Personal versus prescribed judging criteria 275

8.5 Topic review 278

8.5.1 Summary 278

8.5.2 Questions 279

8.5.3 Key terms 280

Options 283

9 The health of young people 285

9.1 What is good health for young people? 286

9.1.1 The nature of young people’s lives 286

9.1.2 Epidemiology of the health of young people 292

9.1.3 Effects of the determinants of health on young people 296

9.1.4 Developmental aspects that affect the health of young people 308

9.2 To what extent do Australia’s young people enjoy good health? 314

9.2.1 Mental health problems and illnesses 315

9.2.2 Body image 321

9.2.3 Alcohol consumption 325

9.2.4 Violence 328

9.2.5 Road safety 331

9.2.6 Sexual health 334

9.2.7 Other relevant and emerging health issues 337

9.2.8 Gambling 337

9.2.9 Cyberbullying 339

9.2.10 Party crashes 340

9.2.11 Drink spiking 341

9.3 What skills and actions enable young people to attain better health? 343

9.3.1 Building positive self-concepts 343

9.3.2 Developing a sense of connectedness 344

9.3.3 Developing resilience and coping skills 347

9.3.4 Developing health literacy and accessing skills 350

9.3.5 Developing communication skills 352

9.3.6 Accessing health services 352

9.3.7 Community service and involvement 353

9.3.8 Creating a sense of future 354

9.3.9 Actions targeting health issues relevant to young people 358

9.4 Topic review 362

9.4.1 Summary 362

9.4.2 Questions 363

9.4.3 Key terms 364

10 Sport and physical activity in Australian society 367

10.1 How have the meanings about sport and physical activity changed over time? 368

10.1.1 Beginnings of modern sport in nineteenth-century England and colonial Australia 368

10.1.2 Sport as a commodity 374

10.2 What is the relationship between sport and national and cultural identity? 384

10.2.1 Australian sporting identity 384

10.2.2 Meaning of physical activity and sport to Indigenous Australians 395

10.2.3 Physical activity, sport and cultural identity 397

10.3 How does the mass media contribute to people’s understanding, values and beliefs about sport? 399

10.3.1 Relationship between sport and the mass media 399

10.3.2 Deconstructing media messages, images and amount of coverage 402

10.4 What are the relationships between sport and physical activity and gender? 406

10.4.1 Sport as a traditionally male domain 406

10.4.2 Challenges to the male domain 411

10.5 Topic review 411

10.5.1 Summary 411

10.5.2 Questions 412

10.5.3 Key terms 413

11 Sports medicine 415

11.1 Classifying and managing sports injuries 416

11.1.1 Ways to classify sports injuries 416

11.1.2 Soft tissue injuries 418

11.1.3 Hard tissue injuries 424

11.1.4 Assessment of injuries 426

11.2 Sports medicine and the demands of specific athletes 428

11.2.1 Children and young athletes 428

11.2.2 Adult and aged athletes 434

11.2.3 Female athletes 437

11.3 Preventative action — Enhancing the well-being of the athlete 441

11.3.1 Physical preparation 443

11.3.2 Sports policy and the sports environment 448

11.3.3 Environmental considerations 454

11.3.4 Taping and bandaging 464

11.4 Managing injury rehabilitation 467

11.4.1 Injury management procedures 467

11.4.2 Return to play 470

11.5 Topic review 474

11.5.1 Summary 474

11.5.2 Questions 475

11.5.3 Key terms 476

12 Improving performance 479

12.1 Training for improved performance 480

12.1.1 Strength training 480

12.1.2 Aerobic training 490

12.1.3 Anaerobic training 496

12.1.4 Flexibility training 503

12.1.5 Skill training 508

12.2 Planning considerations for improving performance 513

12.2.1 Initial planning considerations 513

12.2.2 Planning a training year 515

12.2.3 Elements to be considered when designing a training session 523

12.2.4 Planning to avoid overtraining 529

12.3 Ethical issues related to improving performance 531

12.3.1 Use of drugs 531

12.3.2 Use of technology 536

12.4 Topic review 542

12.4.1 Summary 542

12.4.2 Questions 543

12.4.3 Key terms 544

13 Equity and health 547

13.1 Inequities in the health of Australians 548

13.1.1 Factors that create health inequities 548

13.2 Inequities experienced by population groups in Australia 556

13.2.1 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 556

13.2.2 People in rural and geographically remote locations 569

13.2.3 Inequities for other population groups — summaries 577

13.3 Bridging the gap in populations’ health status 594

13.3.1 Funding to improve health 594

13.3.2 Actions that improve health 596

13.3.3 A social justice framework for addressing health inequities 597

13.3.4 Characteristics of effective health promotion strategies 599

13.4 Topic review 601

13.4.1 Summary 601

13.4.2 Questions 602

13.4.3 Key terms 603

Appendix 1 Techniques, Hints and Practice Exam 605

Appendix 2 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 613

Glossary 617

Index 627